15. Republic of Maryland
Like Ethiopia, Liberia is the only sub-Saharan African nation not to have been colonised by Europeans. Instead it experienced a unique sort of reverse colonisation, whereby freed African slaves from America settled in Western Africa. The process was facilitated by the American Colonization Society and took place in the early nineteenth century, with Liberia founded in 1822. In 1834, freed African-American slaves and freeborn African-Americans from Maryland settled in Africa under the auspices of the Maryland State Colonization Society. In time they came up with a flag inspired by the Stars and Stripes and the colours of Maryland and declared independence as the Republic of Maryland. They remained seperate from the Liberian colonies as the State of Maryland wished to maintain a trade monopoly on the area. Eventually it became apparent that the Republic of Maryland could not survive on its own and it became absorbed into Liberia in 1857, after just three years as an independent state.